IPV Screening Tool

Video Counselling and Safety Planning App

An app-based safety planning tool to support self-management has been developed. The app is designed to provide decisional support for safety behavior and safety planning and will assist the women in developing strategies that increase their safety by increasing their awareness of IPV-related risks and providing the women with necessary skills to enhance their safety.

Multidisciplinary Assessment and Feasibility Study

The use of internationally validated scales is used to assess whether the eHealth interventions have entailed any change in signs of depression and exposure to IPV. Additionally, the acceptability and feasibility of video counselling and safety planning app are evaluated by use of the Model for Assessment of Telemedicine Applications (MAST) model where the users’ perspectives, safety (risk of harm, network problems, data safety), and ethical aspects (right to refuse eHealth intervention, stigma and discrimination) will be addressed through semi-structured individual interviews and in depth interviews with women and health providers. This will provide an in-depth understanding of how the users have experienced the eHealth interventions.

Feasibility of continuation and upscaling

Management and Communication

Publications of the participants of the STOP project

  1. Ankerstjerne, LBS, Laizer, SN, Andreasen, K, Normann, AK, Wu, C, Linde, DS et al.. Landscaping the evidence of intimate partner violence and postpartum depression: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2022;12 (5):e051426. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051426. PubMed PMID:35584869 PubMed Central PMC9119188.
  2. Fernández López, R, de-León-de-León, S, Martin-de-Las-Heras, S, Torres Cantero, JC, Megías, JL, Zapata-Calvente, AL et al.. Women survivors of intimate partner violence talk about using e-health during pregnancy: a focus group study. BMC Womens Health. 2022;22 (1):98. doi: 10.1186/s12905-022-01669-2. PubMed PMID:35361190 PubMed Central PMC8968779.
  3. Martín-de-Las-Heras, S, Khan, KS, Velasco, C, Caño, A, Luna, JD, Rubio, L et al.. Propensity score analysis of psychological intimate partner violence and preterm birth. Sci Rep. 2022;12 (1):2942. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-06990-2. PubMed PMID:35190645 PubMed Central PMC8861009.
  4. Flaathen, EME, Henriksen, L, Småstuen, MC, Schei, B, Taft, A, Noll, J et al.. Safe Pregnancy intervention for intimate partner violence: a randomised controlled trial in Norway among culturally diverse pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022;22 (1):144. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04400-z. PubMed PMID:35189843 PubMed Central PMC8862262.
  5. Zapata-Calvente, AL, Megías, JL, Velasco, C, Caño, A, Khan, KS, Rubio, L et al.. Screening for intimate partner violence during pregnancy: a test accuracy study. Eur J Public Health. 2022;32 (3):429-435. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckac009. PubMed PMID:35134894 PubMed Central PMC9159325.
  6. Román-Gálvez, RM, Martín-Peláez, S, Fernández-Félix, BM, Zamora, J, Khan, KS, Bueno-Cavanillas, A et al.. Worldwide Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence in Pregnancy. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Public Health. 2021;9 :738459. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.738459. PubMed PMID:34527656 PubMed Central PMC8435609.
  7. Eriksen, AMA, Melhus, M, Jacobsen, BK, Schei, B, Broderstad, AR. Intimate partner violence and its association with mental health problems: The importance of childhood violence - The SAMINOR 2 Questionnaire Survey. Scand J Public Health. 2021; :14034948211024481. doi: 10.1177/14034948211024481. PubMed PMID:34192982 .
  8. Román-Gálvez, RM, Martín-Peláez, S, Martínez-Galiano, JM, Khan, KS, Bueno-Cavanillas, A. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence in Pregnancy: An Umbrella Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18 (2):. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18020707. PubMed PMID:33467538 PubMed Central PMC7830915.
  9. Magnusson, FL, Rogathi, JJ, Sigalla, GN, Manongi, R, Rasch, V, Gammeltoft, T et al.. Does resilience moderate the effect of intimate partner violence on signs of depression among Tanzanian pregnant women: A cross-sectional study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021;100 (4):768-774. doi: 10.1111/aogs.14062. PubMed PMID:33316080 .
  10. Linde, DS, Bakiewicz, A, Normann, AK, Hansen, NB, Lundh, A, Rasch, V et al.. Intimate Partner Violence and Electronic Health Interventions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22 (12):e22361. doi: 10.2196/22361. PubMed PMID:33306030 PubMed Central PMC7762681.
  11. Normann, AK, Bakiewicz, A, Kjerulff Madsen, F, Khan, KS, Rasch, V, Linde, DS et al.. Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2020;10 (10):e034153. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034153. PubMed PMID:33130559 PubMed Central PMC7783610.
  12. Aye, WT, Lien, L, Stigum, H, Schei, B, Sundby, J, Bjertness, E et al.. Domestic violence victimisation and its association with mental distress: a cross-sectional study of the Yangon Region, Myanmar. BMJ Open. 2020;10 (9):e037936. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037936. PubMed PMID:32938598 PubMed Central PMC7497540.
  13. Nguyen, HT, Ngo, TT, Nguyen, QV, Van Ngo, T, Nguyen, VD, Nguyen, HD et al.. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Vietnam: role of husbands. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2021;24 (2):271-279. doi: 10.1007/s00737-020-01056-6. PubMed PMID:32728774 .
  14. Ciraulo, LA, Ciraulo, NA, Ciraulo, RS, Robaczewski, GD, Andreasen, KP, Falank, CR et al.. American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma "Stop the Bleed Program": Quantifying the Impact of Training Upon Public School Educators Readiness. Am Surg. 2020;86 (11):1520-1524. doi: 10.1177/0003134820933550. PubMed PMID:32683925 .
  15. Gashaw, BT, Schei, B, Solbraekke, KN, Magnus, JH. Ethiopian Health Care Workers' Insights into and Responses to Intimate Partner Violence in Pregnancy-A Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17 (10):. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17103745. PubMed PMID:32466276 PubMed Central PMC7277814.
  16. Vik, BF, Rasmussen, K, Schei, B, Hagemann, CT. Three groups of suspects in police reported rape cases: First-time suspects, recidivists and unidentified suspects. A comparative study. J Forensic Leg Med. 2020;71 :101771. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2019.02.004. PubMed PMID:32342899 .
  17. Rishal, P, Devi Pun, K, Schei, B, Bhandari, B, Kumar Joshi, S, Swahnberg, K et al.. Improving Safety Among Pregnant Women Reporting Domestic Violence in Nepal-A Pilot Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17 (7):. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072268. PubMed PMID:32230945 PubMed Central PMC7177396.
  18. Martin-de-Las-Heras, S, Velasco, C, Luna-Del-Castillo, JD, Khan, KS. Maternal outcomes associated to psychological and physical intimate partner violence during pregnancy: A cohort study and multivariate analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14 (6):e0218255. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218255. PubMed PMID:31194820 PubMed Central PMC6564538.
  19. Henriksen, L, Flaathen, EM, Angelshaug, J, Garnweidner-Holme, L, Småstuen, MC, Noll, J et al.. The Safe Pregnancy study - promoting safety behaviours in antenatal care among Norwegian, Pakistani and Somali pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2019;19 (1):724. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6922-y. PubMed PMID:31182062 PubMed Central PMC6558870.
  20. Kjerulff Madsen, F, Holm-Larsen, CE, Wu, C, Rogathi, J, Manongi, R, Mushi, D et al.. Intimate partner violence and subsequent premature termination of exclusive breastfeeding: A cohort study. PLoS One. 2019;14 (6):e0217479. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217479. PubMed PMID:31181090 PubMed Central PMC6557484.
  21. Tho Nhi, T, Hanh, NTT, Hinh, ND, Toan, NV, Gammeltoft, T, Rasch, V et al.. Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women and Postpartum Depression in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019 :4717485. doi: 10.1155/2019/4717485. PubMed PMID:31179324 PubMed Central PMC6507254.
  22. Pun, KD, Rishal, P, Darj, E, Infanti, JJ, Shrestha, S, Lukasse, M et al.. Domestic violence and perinatal outcomes - a prospective cohort study from Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2019;19 (1):671. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6967-y. PubMed PMID:31151395 PubMed Central PMC6545012.
  23. Martin-de-Las-Heras, S, Velasco, C, Caño, A, Luna-Del-Castillo, JD, Khan, KS. Poor antenatal care attendance is associated with intimate partner violence: Multivariate analysis of a pregnancy cohort. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019;237 :204-208. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.05.001. PubMed PMID:31075561 .
  24. Gashaw, BT, Magnus, JH, Schei, B. Intimate partner violence and late entry into antenatal care in Ethiopia. Women Birth. 2019;32 (6):e530-e537. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2018.12.008. PubMed PMID:30595351 .
  25. Martin-de-Las-Heras, S, Velasco, C, Luna-Del-Castillo, JD, Khan, KS. Breastfeeding avoidance following psychological intimate partner violence during pregnancy: a cohort study and multivariate analysis. BJOG. 2019;126 (6):778-783. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15592. PubMed PMID:30575266 .
  26. Tho Tran, N, Nguyen, HTT, Nguyen, HD, Ngo, TV, Gammeltoft, T, Rasch, V et al.. Emotional violence exerted by intimate partners and postnatal depressive symptoms among women in Vietnam: A prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2018;13 (11):e0207108. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207108. PubMed PMID:30412609 PubMed Central PMC6226195.
  27. Van Ngo, T, Gammeltoft, T, Nguyen, HTT, Meyrowitsch, DW, Rasch, V. Antenatal depressive symptoms and adverse birth outcomes in Hanoi, Vietnam. PLoS One. 2018;13 (11):e0206650. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206650. PubMed PMID:30388162 PubMed Central PMC6214542.
  28. Eriksen, AMA, Hansen, KL, Schei, B, Sørlie, T, Stigum, H, Bjertness, E et al.. Childhood violence and mental health among indigenous Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: a SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018;77 (1):1508320. doi: 10.1080/22423982.2018.1508320. PubMed PMID:30112962 PubMed Central PMC6104612.
  29. Pun, KD, Rishal, P, Infanti, JJ, Bjørngaard, JH, Koju, R, Schei, B et al.. Exposure to domestic violence influences pregnant women's preparedness for childbirth in Nepal: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2018;13 (7):e0200234. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200234. PubMed PMID:30048459 PubMed Central PMC6061992.
  30. Perera, D, Lund, R, Swahnberg, K, Schei, B, Infanti, JJ, ADVANCE study team et al.. 'When helpers hurt': women's and midwives' stories of obstetric violence in state health institutions, Colombo district, Sri Lanka. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18 (1):211. doi: 10.1186/s12884-018-1869-z. PubMed PMID:29879946 PubMed Central PMC5991468.
  31. Colombini, M, Mayhew, SH, Lund, R, Singh, N, Swahnberg, K, Infanti, J et al.. Factors shaping political priorities for violence against women-mitigation policies in Sri Lanka. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2018;18 (1):22. doi: 10.1186/s12914-018-0161-7. PubMed PMID:29801498 PubMed Central PMC5970471.
  32. Gashaw, BT, Schei, B, Magnus, JH. Social ecological factors and intimate partner violence in pregnancy. PLoS One. 2018;13 (3):e0194681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194681. PubMed PMID:29596497 PubMed Central PMC5875784.
  33. Rishal, P, Pun, KD, Darj, E, Joshi, SK, Bjørngaard, JH, Swahnberg, K et al.. Prevalence and associated factors of domestic violence among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in Nepal. Scand J Public Health. 2018;46 (8):785-793. doi: 10.1177/1403494817723195. PubMed PMID:29578383 .
  34. Muzrif, MM, Perera, D, Wijewardena, K, Schei, B, Swahnberg, K. Domestic violence: a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in different regions of Sri Lanka. BMJ Open. 2018;8 (2):e017745. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017745. PubMed PMID:29463585 PubMed Central PMC5855343.
  35. Rasch, V, Van, TN, Nguyen, HTT, Manongi, R, Mushi, D, Meyrowitsch, DW et al.. Intimate partner violence (IPV): The validity of an IPV screening instrument utilized among pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam. PLoS One. 2018;13 (2):e0190856. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190856. PubMed PMID:29389954 PubMed Central PMC5794062.
  36. Forr, C, Schei, B, Stene, LE, Ormstad, K, Hagemann, CT. Factors associated with trace evidence analyses and DNA findings among police reported cases of rape. Forensic Sci Int. 2018;283 :136-143. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.12.025. PubMed PMID:29301113 .
  37. Manongi, R, Rogathi, J, Sigalla, G, Mushi, D, Rasch, V, Gammeltoft, T et al.. The Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Signs of Depression During Pregnancy in Kilimanjaro Region, Northern Tanzania. J Interpers Violence. 2020;35 (23-24):5797-5811. doi: 10.1177/0886260517724256. PubMed PMID:29294866 .
  38. Nguyen, TH, Ngo, TV, Nguyen, VD, Nguyen, HD, Nguyen, HTT, Gammeltoft, T et al.. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Vietnam: prevalence, risk factors and the role of social support. Glob Health Action. 2018;11 (sup3):1638052. doi: 10.1080/16549716.2019.1638052. PubMed PMID:31328674 PubMed Central PMC6691915.
  39. Martin-de-Las-Heras, S, Khan, K. Healthcare professionals should be actively involved in gender violence reduction: political consensus emerges in Spain. BJOG. 2018;125 (1):80. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14954. PubMed PMID:29243359 .
  40. Rogathi, JJ, Manongi, R, Mushi, D, Rasch, V, Sigalla, GN, Gammeltoft, T et al.. Postpartum depression among women who have experienced intimate partner violence: A prospective cohort study at Moshi, Tanzania. J Affect Disord. 2017;218 :238-245. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.063. PubMed PMID:28477502 .
  41. Sigalla, GN, Rasch, V, Gammeltoft, T, Meyrowitsch, DW, Rogathi, J, Manongi, R et al.. Social support and intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2017;17 (1):240. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4157-3. PubMed PMID:28274220 PubMed Central PMC5343555.
  42. Sigalla, GN, Mushi, D, Meyrowitsch, DW, Manongi, R, Rogathi, JJ, Gammeltoft, T et al.. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its association with preterm birth and low birth weight in Tanzania: A prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2017;12 (2):e0172540. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172540. PubMed PMID:28235031 PubMed Central PMC5325295.
  43. Rishal, P, Joshi, SK, Lukasse, M, Schei, B, Swahnberg, K, ADVANCE Study Group et al.. 'They just walk away' - women's perception of being silenced by antenatal health workers: a qualitative study on women survivors of domestic violence in Nepal. Glob Health Action. 2016;9 :31838. doi: 10.3402/gha.v9.31838. PubMed PMID:27978940 PubMed Central PMC5159679.
  44. Pun, KD, Infanti, JJ, Koju, R, Schei, B, Darj, E, ADVANCE Study Group et al.. Community perceptions on domestic violence against pregnant women in Nepal: a qualitative study. Glob Health Action. 2016;9 :31964. doi: 10.3402/gha.v9.31964. PubMed PMID:27882865 PubMed Central PMC5122230.
  45. Eriksen, AM, Schei, B, Hansen, KL, Sørlie, T, Fleten, N, Javo, C et al.. Childhood violence and adult chronic pain among indigenous Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: a SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75 :32798. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v75.32798. PubMed PMID:27802844 PubMed Central PMC5090132.
  46. Wangel, AM, Ryding, EL, Schei, B, Östman, M, Lukasse, M, Bidens study group et al.. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the association with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress in a multi-ethnic pregnant population in southern Sweden. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016;9 :7-13. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2016.04.003. PubMed PMID:27634658 .
  47. Hoang, TN, Van, TN, Gammeltoft, T, W Meyrowitsch, D, Nguyen Thi Thuy, H, Rasch, V et al.. Association between Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Vietnam: A Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2016;11 (9):e0162844. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162844. PubMed PMID:27631968 PubMed Central PMC5025080.
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  50. Henriksen, L, Schei, B, Lukasse, M. Lifetime sexual violence and childbirth expectations - A Norwegian population based cohort study. Midwifery. 2016;36 :14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2016.02.018. PubMed PMID:27106939 .
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  53. Lukasse, M, Laanpere, M, Karro, H, Kristjansdottir, H, Schroll, AM, Van Parys, AS et al.. Pregnancy intendedness and the association with physical, sexual and emotional abuse - a European multi-country cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15 :120. doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0558-4. PubMed PMID:26008119 PubMed Central PMC4494794.
  54. Eriksen, AM, Hansen, KL, Javo, C, Schei, B. Emotional, physical and sexual violence among Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: The SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. Scand J Public Health. 2015;43 (6):588-96. doi: 10.1177/1403494815585936. PubMed PMID:25969164 .
  55. Lukasse, M, Schroll, AM, Karro, H, Schei, B, Steingrimsdottir, T, Van Parys, AS et al.. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015;94 (5):508-17. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12593. PubMed PMID:25627169 .
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