Prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence against pregnant women who attend antenatal care in Denmark and Spain: A digital approach (under review Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica)


Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global health issue. Exposure to IPV during pregnancy leads to health-related problems for both the mother and the newborn. However, current knowledge on its occurrence is heterogeneous and assessing the problem using standardized tools in different contexts is needed. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of IPV in pregnant women in Denmark and Spain through digital tools. A cross-sectional design was used to systematically screen for IPV among pregnant women attending antenatal care by use the standardized screening tools, Woman Abuse Screening Tool and Abuse Assessment Screen. A total of 17 220 women in Denmark and 2222 women in Spain were screened. The response rate was high in both countries (74.7 % and 92.5 %, respectively). IPV was reported by 6.6% (n = 854) of pregnant women in Denmark, and 13.7% (n = 282) in Spain. Logistic regressions estimated crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals of the relationship between sociodemographic variables and IPV. In both countries having a marital status other than married and lack of social support were risk factors of IPV. Additionally, in Denmark, pregnant women older than 40 years, unemployed or foreign, were at higher risk, while having higher educational levels was a protective factor. In Spain, having at least one child prior to the current pregnancy was a risk factor of IPV. These results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the occurrence of IPV during pregnancy in Denmark and Spain and highlight the feasibility of digital systematic screening in antenatal settings across Europe. 

Rodrigo Fernández-López, Karen Andreasen, Lea Ankerstjerne, Stella Martín-de-las-Heras, Vibeke Rasch, Jesús L. Megías, Ditte S. Linde, Sabina de-León-de-León, Berit Schei, Chunsen Wu, Alba Oviedo-Gutiérrez, Antonella Ludmila Zapata-Calvente.

Keywords: Intimate partner violence; Prevalence; Screening; Digital tools; Pregnancy; Antenatal care